|Kolokium Ulama Muhammadiyah yang membahas neo-sufisme
Colloquium of Ulama Muhammadiyah who discussed about neo-sufism based on Muhammadiyah came to the second sessions on Saturday (8/11), after finishing the first session last month. The event which was held by the Center for the Study of Islam and Philosophy (PSIF), University of Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) presented speakers, such as the Chairman of PP Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Syafiq A Mughni, the Vice Chairman of PW Muhammadiyah East Java KH Muammal Hamidy, LC, and the lecture of FAI UMM Drs. Fathurahim, MA.
Some ulama Muhammadiyah who attended as the active participants were KH Abdul Munir from Ponpes (Islamic boarding school) Modern Paciran, KH Anwar Mu’rob from Ponpes Karang Asem Paciran and KH Afnan Ansori from Ponpes Muhammadiyah Brondong Lamongan. The discussion was being exciting when the concept and practice of tashawuf (spiritualism) were argued.
Syafiq considered, the phenomenon of tashawuf that is used as the way of religiousness for Moslem people precisely caused the degradation of Moslem people. This ideology made wali (holy preachers) being a blessed men who had karamah (extraordinary ability), could give blessing and prevented from any disasters. They are sanctified and used as connectors for people who wanted to pray to Allah SWT. They prefer rely on the wali’s blessing than make a serious attempt by working hard. Eventually, the religiousness practice was fulfilled with tahayul (un-Islamic practices), bid’ah (heresy) and khurafat. Islamic tuition became locked from the spirit of reformisme through re-purification to the authentic Qur’an and Sunah.
The same perspective was presented by Mu’ammal. The characteristics of the tarekat (paths) were made mursyid or murabbi the same as wali, having karamah, and seek intentionally their relation with the prophet. Moreover, there are specific dzikir (prayer recitals) which allegedly were received from supernatural or from the prophet consciously or by dreaming. “Those dzikir so special that exceed the dzikir in Qur’an and Sunnah,” said Mu’ammal.
Syafiq said the spirit of reformisme appeared after Ahmad bin Hanbal and his follower Ibn Taimiyah who opposed Syi’ah and Mu’tazilah, and anti-tasawuf (spiritualism); then, were inspired by Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab who eradicated deviations such as bid’ah, khurafat, and syirik (associating others with God). Wahhab’s action which anti-tarekat made him as a target that was labeled Wahhabi.
Furthermore, Syafiq acknowledged, Muhammadiyah was indeed kept in touch with those figures. Therefore, it associated easily as an anti-tasawuf and anti-tarekat organization. A priori, Muhammadiyah rejected those kinds of spiritualism even though this action did not appear in KH Ahmad Dahlan era. However, it appeared in the following era.
In addition, Mu’ammal emphasized, if Muhammadiyah wanted to use those tashawuf as its way to be religious, it just the same as 1 century set back. “The exact reason of founding Muhammadiyah was to purify the Islamic ideology from any kinds of tahayul, bid’ah and khurafat,” he said.
“Muhammadiyah perspective to return to the Qur’an and Sunnah have normatively clarified that the prophet Muhammad is a par excellence model who must be referred in the all aspects of life,” continued Syafiq. Besides gave example on prayer, the prophet also gave examples on the behavior of political, economic, etc.
The both speakers agreed that Muhammadiyah had to be consistent in rejecting the spiritual practices which do not based on Qur’an and Sunnah. If the modernism was assumed have removed spiritualism, the ritual of wirid (religious prayer) may be done if only the materials are appropriate with Qur’an and Sunnah.
“Muhammadiyah is known with the zuhud life, means life which emphasized on the way to get the halal wealth, not to be greedy human, and like to give donation. Muhammadiyah people are also increase salat (prayer), and recite holy Qur’an and even memorize it,” said Syafiq.
The tasawuf practice which is not associated with the extreme practice, do not ignore syariah, have no permanent teacher, have no fixed formula of zikir, do not anti-secular, prioritize moral and close to God could be accepted in Muhammadiyah, Syafiq added.
Meanwhile, Fathor Rahim in his article offered some dzikir materials quoted from the sahih hadist. The literatures that are usually practiced by Muhammadiyah people shown Muhammadiyah is not anti-dzikir.
The head of PSIF Nurhakim expected, from this forum would come up any ideas of formulating guideline for Muhammadiyah people to make them consistent in having spirituality. Of course, to make it accountable, the authentic resources that appropriate with syariah must be explored continuously. “Religiosity of Muhammadiyah people which prioritize zuhud life as the social asceticism can be the way of spirituality searching that could be considered as ahlak (good conduct) which does not deviate from tauhid (unity). The campus task is to facilitate those searching,” said Nurhakim. (nov/nas/t_rys)